Leveraging HST with MUSE I - NGC 1978

Nearly all of the well-studied ancient globular clusters (GCs), in the Milky Way and in nearby galaxies, show star-to-star variations in specific elements (e.g. He, C, N, O, Na, and Al), known as 'multiple populations' (MPs). However, MPs are not restricted to ancient clusters, with massive clusters down to ~2Gyr showing signs of chemical variations. This suggests that young and old clusters share the same formation mechanism but most of the work to date on younger clusters has focused on N variations. Initial studies even suggested that younger clusters may not host spreads in other elements beyond N (e.g. Na), calling into question whether these abundance variations share the same origin as in the older GCs. In this work, we combine Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry with Very Large Telescope (VLT)/Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) spectroscopy of a large sample of red giant branch (RGB) stars (338) in the Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 1978, the youngest globular to date with reported MPs in the form of N spreads. By combining the spectra of individual RGB stars into N-normal and N-enhanced samples, based on the 'chromosome map' derived from HST, we search for mean abundance variations. Based on the NaD line, we find a Na difference of {Delta}[Na/Fe]=0.07+/-0.01 between the populations. While this difference is smaller than typically found in ancient GCs (which may suggest a correlation with age), this result further confirms that the MP phenomenon is the same, regardless of cluster age and host galaxy. As such, these young clusters offer some of the strictest tests for theories on the origin of MPs.

Cone search capability for table J/MNRAS/498/4472/table1 (Photometric and spectroscopic information of the RGB MUSE targets used for the analysis of NGC 1978)

Source https://dc.g-vo.org/rr/q/lp/custom/CDS.VizieR/J/MNRAS/498/4472
Related Identifier https://cdsarc.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/MNRAS/498/4472
Related Identifier http://vizier.cds.unistra.fr/viz-bin/VizieR-2?-source=J/MNRAS/498/4472
Metadata Access http://dc.g-vo.org/rr/q/pmh/pubreg.xml?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=oai_b2find&identifier=ivo://CDS.VizieR/J/MNRAS/498/4472
Creator Saracino S.; Kamann S.; Usher C.; Bastian N.; Martocchia S.; Lardo C.,Latour M.; Cabrera-Ziri I.; Dreizler S.; Giesers B.; Husser T.-O.,Kacharov N.; Salaris M.
Publisher CDS
Publication Year 2023
Rights https://cds.unistra.fr/vizier-org/licences_vizier.html
OpenAccess true
Contact CDS support team <cds-question(at)unistra.fr>
Resource Type Dataset; AstroObjects
Discipline Astrophysics and Astronomy; Exoplanet Astronomy; Galactic and extragalactic Astronomy; Interdisciplinary Astronomy; Natural Sciences; Observational Astronomy; Physics; Stellar Astronomy